In the antique Roma and Greece gambles was popular only in bath houses and taverns. The separate gamble houses appeared later in medieval Europe. The word Casino became from Italy and means small country house or private club where people came to play. Before XVII century these playing houses was only private and illegal. Especially church censured and persecuted it. We know that church had incontestable authority in the Middle Ages.
It should be noted that Casinos give much more chances to win money that private games between gamblers.
In XVII century gambles have got official and legal status. Since gamblers started assemble in particular place to play together. Moreover they’ve got opportunity to play not only with each other. They started to play with their house, with casino. That was a Revolution. In this case players could win much more than they put on stake.
The real flourishing of gamble clubs started in IXX century when appeared the famous Monaco Casinos. Because of Europe restrictions all gamblers met it this princedom. Even Russian aristocrats visited this place to play with foreign gamers. Richest people of the world wasted here their fortunes.
In XX century it became possible to say that gambles was legalized. Before government just prohibited casinos but now they prefer to control it.
Just for interest in England today more than 100 casinos are registered and 21 of these are in London. In Spain all casinos were legalized in 1970, moreover it is legal to set up playing machines in the shops. In Greece casinos belong to private persons but it makes no difference concerning legality. America is famous for scope and luxury of Las-Vegas casinos but it deserves separate attention.
“About eleven o’clock in the afternoon only real foolhardy players stay out near gaming-tables. It’s only roulette exists for them, they were coming for it only, the pay no heed what’s happening around and nothing interested in for all season but playing only from morning till night and ready to play till daybreak if it can be done”.
F.M. Dostoevskiy. “Player”
I was playing roulette twice. Both times I staked a little. I have won thirst time and loose for a second. My loss didn’t hit me on my pocket much though I didn’t try my luck for a third time. And I’m not sorry for it generally. Though sometimes especially when I see blinking casino lights I have an inclination for coming in. The roulette is contagious apparently. Kuprin wrote: “… A roulette have no pity… A roulette is dashing thing and mean”.
It is still unknown who did invent this mean thing. It seems that ancient Greeks used for gambling revolving shield balanced on sword edge. And Roman emperor August had a fighting chariot wheel mounted on a vertical axle in special palace room for the same purpose. And the roulette which is turning in all world casino was invented probably by XVII century French philosopher and mathematician Pascal who didn’t intend to create a gambling device. Studying probability theory he planned and constructed a wheel with revolving cylinders and exactly denoted order of numbers and combinations. This wheel had to help with explanation for fortuity theory suggested by Pascal. His revolving cylinder wasn’t stay secret: moreover his contemporary scientists who were loking at Pascal’s constructions with interest and scepticism but the church drew their attention to the roulette. They divined a revolving cylinder potential immediately and weren’t tired of reiterating about “heretical” elements: all roulette numbers were 666 in sum. And one literary man writes that “whoever was invented the roulette but he made a perfect and thoroughly thought-out foreman work whether or no. The structure per se, system, number subdivision, combinations, purpote and moduses of winning probability calculating – everything carries on genious and delight traits”.
A special wheel with numbered sockets and ball for the first time was applied in gamble purpose in the “hoka” game, modern roulette predecessor. These earlier roulette wheels variety were more crude and primitive then modern devices. In XVIII century in France lots of casino with “hoka” playing were open already. A profit from these casino was rather big because three sockets from 40 were marekd with “0” (zero) and when a ball got into one of them an eastablishment took all stakes. Thirst France minister cardinal Julio Mazarini ordered to open casino to fill up slender Ludovic XIV ‘s treasury. By the way Mazarini has became the reachest noble after king because of the then roulette. There was another roulette type – the game named “even-odd” (a wheel with 40 sockets and markings for stakes applied on it’s surface). Twenty sockets were mark with “E” (even) letter, the others with “O” (odd) letter. If a ball got into “even” socket all stakes went to the bank and the other way. In many XVIII european casino the other type of roulette could be meet – “Bul”. A wheel was look like a big bowl, along it’s edges a ball was moving. A wheel was motionless, had 18 sockets numbered from 1 to 9. “Zero” role was playing with the number 5. A gain was payed 7 for 1. Besides it was possible to stake on even and odd, when payings were 1 for 1. “Bul” game attracted women mainly; the explanation must be that the rules are pretty easy and stakes are little. That’s why “Bul” for example is one of few gamble games spread in Switzerland where casino, private lottery and sweepstakes are prohibited. Another game preserved till nowadays is “pti shwo” where hippodrome and casino elements are joined. A ring with nine spokes revolve on axis above immovable circle, small horse with numbers figures are fastened on ends of these spokes. Under the ring there is a textile field with a hippodrome finish pole picture. A player whose horse is closer to finish line then others when the ring stops wins and gets all stakes.
So, roulette became fashionable and conquered Paris gaming-houses fast. A wheel stoped revolving in 1789 only when during the French revolution government enacted the decree forbided all gamble games. Gaming houses were opened again with Napoleon’s coming to power. Business prospered not so long – in 1839 all gaming houses in France were closed. By then roulette fever spreaded all over the world. In Russia under Ekatherine II roulette tables adorned not only luxurious palace halls – it could be seen at kitchens even where coart cooks amused with overseas game in their free time. When Turkish sultan Selim III heard from captivated Frencmen about roulette he sent his foremen oversea for learning how to produce “wheel of fortune”. And Hindoos got aquanteed with this game by British diplomats. In America the roulette started its victorious train in 1800 in New Orlean. In XIX century the game was haunted by vicissitudes of fate like in Europe: it was forbided, casino were closed. In XX century gamble business was legalized in USA. By the way the difference of American roulette is two zero cells. Further numbers following one after another are situated on opposite sides of a wheel and the sum of two successive numbers is always 37. For example red sockets 14 and 23 or black 4 and 33.
In 1861 Parisian Francua Blan inaugurated the casino in Monaco. Initially it was situated in barn where four gaming-tables stood, two of them were roulette. Few years later the great gaming palace was build in Monte-Carlo where crowds of people from all over the world were gathered to try their luck. Lots of regnant persons came to Monte-Carlo – they were playing in special hall one-on-one with croupier who embodied Fortune. The main reason of Monte-Carlo’s prestige is that the casino traditionally gives players hundred-percent guarantee from any types of swindle there.
It considers that roulette is a fight with fate, with chance because a winning here depends not on your skill but on luck only. But owner’s of some establishments don’t agree with such statement of a question. In other words the roulette doesn’t defend from underhand. For example in due time so-called “acicular wheel” was popular. The principle of its’ operation is easy: when pressing a hidden button needle tips sliding in from microscopical outlets situated opposite red or black sockets. There is own needles operating button for each colour. If needles block red wheel sockets a ball surely will fall to the black cell and vice versa. Needles moved off to a background with the appearance of electromagnetic arrangement for roulette wheel operating. Small electromagnet builded into the down side of wheel under appointed numbers and a steel core fixed into a ball. In addition to this attachements brake blocks using sometimes, they stop a wheel if a pedal masking like parquet board is pushed and telescopic roulette table legs changing high of which make a ball falling to earlier chose sockets. But if owners try to deceive clients it would be logically to suppose that luck hunters do the same when don’t rely upon blind chance wheel. Though it’s almost impossible to do these: intricate “systems” or the accuratest calculations don’t allow to “rob” casino. At the best these systems lead to a man loosing minimal sum or neither gain nor lose. But there are exceptions. So, the system invented by English mechanical engineer William Jaggers brought its’ author 180.000 dollars. Jagger’s system based on there are no ideal balanced roulette wheels so it means that physical errors will influence somehow or other on its’ rotation and the result is that some numbers will fall in more frequent theh others certainly. Jaggers employed six assistants assigned to each of them one gaming-table. Everyday the were looking at gaming and wrote down all falling numbers. At the evening engineer gathered notes and analized it. After laborious calculations during month he could say with confidence that some numbers falling frequincy doesn’t keep within probability theory. After that Jaggers came to a casino himself and took part in a game staking on numbers marked earlier. Four days later he holded enormous amount in his hands.
But such cases are rare that’s why in roulette game (on conditions that it goes clear on the casino’s side) we can expect to a fortune only. And it smiles just for ones.
It’s not a secret probably that a set of “beloved” game machines differs in diverse countries. The reasons are both national mentality and juridical fine points. Everywhere practically both classic slots (invented in USA) and video slots (invented in Australia) are spread. There is no talking about national specifity, they are everywhere. Let’s talk today about more exotic variants which you’ll meet not anywhere.
We’ll start with far away Japan and “pachinko” game. This game appeared in Japan in the first half of 20th century and is a type of pinball in whole. Player buys metallic balls which are loading in game machine and shoot to the playing field one by one. There the ball jump aside of different bars and fall to the down side of game machine (machines are horizontal but not vertical like in pinball) or get into one of the prize pocket on the field. The name of the game itself is a onomotopoeia: “pachi” is a sound uttering when ball reflectioning bars. Playing machine gives a winning with balls the same way. Here the interestest starts. Money prizes are prohibited by law in Japan (that’s why ordinary slots are so unpopular there). After game finishing a player takes balls and goes to a shop situated in playing hall where balls exchanging for material prizes – candies, toys, etc. He comes out of a hall with these prizes and goes to a nearest back street and exhanges prizes on money – prizes get back to pachinko hall and happy player goes away.
In modern pachinko machines player has a possibility to regulate a power of droping balls, it means that game acquires skill game features, it’s said that specialists are able to play pachinko running a surplus. Further in new games there are three windows with numbers which are change when hiting. If three identical numbers happen, playing machine comes to “prize game” rate with augmented winning chances by opening additional winning pocket. Generally, payings level in game machine is adjustable, hall’s owners change it from time to time, average payings are about 80% but some game machines can be adjust on “distribution” for players attraction. This game is very popular in Japan, 50 millions of Japanese play it and yearly halls’ turnover exceed a half trillion dollars!
There are rather like playing machines in Europe too. For example known for everyone “crane-machines” where you try to get teddy bears, they haven’t money prizes also. By the way I’ll note that payings level in these game machines is adjustable too, and winnings have a habit to occur in equel periods of time at that, so an observant player can get an advantage. Another type of playing machines is similar with pachinko by functioning principle – you drop a coin, it falls to a game field in a random way. The field consists of two parts: lower side is fixed and a platform moves on it. A coin fall on a platform first, and if you’re lucky one, it will push off one or some coins from the platform which will fall on the fixed part and the platform will push them off further down. Everything that fell – is your gain. But don’t try to incline the game machine – there are sensors which will block payings. Though you will not meet online versions of such machines. May be somewhere in Japan pachinko is virtualized but there is no main soft suppliers of this game in online casino. It’s clear that playing internet version of “crane-machine” is not so interesting, yet may be in the future it will appear.
So and English “fruit” playing machines can be find in online casino, though not everywhere now. The basis of such slots are ordinary classic slots usually, one-line often. They call “fruit” because the most typical symbols were different fruits. But unlike ordinary slots English game machines have some additional possibilities which are “given” to a player in a random way. The first possibility is to hold any number of drums. For example two lemons and one cherry turn out. You hold drums with lemons, during next spin only drum with cherry will revolve. If you’re lucky, the third lemon will occur and you’ll win. Other possibility is to push one of the drums (or some even). In this way the drum move one symbol down. Again you have two lemons and cherry, but you see that there is one more lemon under the cherry, you push the drum with cherry and win! Payings in offline fruit game machines are not rather big – about 80% (minimal permissible level – 70%).
Further improvement of fruit slots are AWP games (Amusement with Prizes). Prize round appears here which activate by fulfiling additional conditions (usually additional side symbols are add to main simbols, you’ll start prize game by collecting some side symbols). In the prize game you can play some Hi-Low rounds in turn (a number from 1 to 12 is given, you have to guess if the next one will be higher or lower). Every won round increases prize. You can reach a top of pyramid where the gain will be about some thousands coins, if you’ll win 30 times in succession. You can choose the variant of gain often – money, pushings, special prize game. These type of games widespread presents not only in England but in Microgaming online casino too.
As you see, there is a “national colour” in game machines too. Not each of them you can meet online, but some novelties you’ll see there surely. So if you want something new – welcome to the game!
Today the online casino which is also known as virtual casinos is becoming very popular among internet gamblers which enable them to play and wager on casino games through the Internet. It is more convenient than land based casinos but reliability and trust are often questioned. Many online casinos develop their software from software companies like microgaming, real-time gaming and playtech. There are three types of online casinos. The first one being web based online casinos, where the gamblers can go to the website and open the gambling games with the help of browser plug-ins like macromedia flash or java. The second one is known as download based online casinos where the gamblers need to download software client to play the games. The online casino software connects to the main casino service provider and helps internet gamblers to play games. The third and last one is live based casinos where web players play games on internet website like real environment casinos. In this type of casinos they can talk and interact with casino dealers in casino studios worldwide.
Fraud behavior has been witnessed very often from online casinos where they don’t pay the winning money to their customers and these kinds of casinos have been termed as rogue casinos. These kinds of casinos delay the withdrawal of money to their customers in the hope that they will play the game till they don’t loose all their money. So me other rogue casinos delay the payment of money by applying unfair terms of their house rules “Elka” system/Oyster Gaming and Casino bar are online casino software which have been found in the guilt of fraud and cheat.
Today online casinos are offering large sum of money to get more gamblers so that they join their network and they are even willing to loose some money in the beginning, hoping that they would recover the loss in the future.